It is most helpful to see useful models of school learning that is ideal to achieving instructional goals through preferred application of educational technology. These are the models of Meaningful Learning, Discovery learning, Generative Learning and Constructivism.
In these conceptual models, we shall see how effective teachers best interact with students in innovative learning activities, while integrating technology to the teaching learning process.
Figure 2 – Conceptual Models of Learning
If the traditional learning environment gives stress focus to rote learning and simple memorization, meaningful learning gives focus to new experience departs from that is related to what the learners already knows. New experience departs from the learning of a sequence of words but attention to meaning. It assumes that:
● Students already have some knowledge that is relevant to new learning.
● Students are wiling to perform class work to find connections between what they already know and what they can learn.
In the learning process, the learner is encouraged to recognize relevant personal experiences. A reward structure is set so that the learner will have both interest and confidence, and this incentive system sets a positive environment to learning. Facts that are subsequently assimilated are subjected to the learner’s understanding and application. In the classroom, hands-on activities are introduced so as to simulate learning in everyday living.
Discovery learning is differentiated from reception learning in which ideas are presented directly to student in a well-organized way, such as through a detailed set of instructions to complete an experiment task. To make a contrast, in discovery learning student from tasks to uncover what is to be learned.
New ideas and new decision are generated in the learning process, regardless of the need to move on and depart from organized setoff activities previously set. In discovery learning, it is important that the student become personally engaged and not subjected by the teacher to procedures he/she is not allowed to depart from.
In applying technology, the computer can present a tutorial process by which the learner is presented key concept and the rules of learning in a direct manner for receptive learning. But the computer has other uses rather than delivering tutorials. In a computer simulation process, for example, the learner himself is made to identify key concept by interacting with a responsive virtual environment.
In generative learning, we have active learners who attend to learning events and generate meaning from this experience and draw inferences thereby creating a personal model or explanation to the new experience in the context of existing knowledge.
Generative learning is viewed as different from the simple process of storing information. Motivation and responsibility are seen to be crucial to this domain of learning. The area of language comprehension offers examples of this type of generative learning activities, such as in writing paragraph summaries, developing answers and questions, drawing pictures, creating paragraph titles, organizing ideas/concepts, and others. In sum, generative learning gives emphasis to what can be done with pieces of information, not only on access to them.
In constructivism, the learner builds a personal understanding through appropriate learning activities and a good learning environment. The most accepted principles constructivism are:
● Learning consists in what a person can actively assemble for himself and not what he can receive passively.
● The role of learning is to help the individual live/adapt to his personal world.
These two principles in turn lead to three practical implications:
● The learner is directly responsible for learning. He creates personal understanding and transforms information into knowledge. The teacher plays an indirect role by modeling effective learning, assisting, facilitating and encouraging learners.
● The context of meaningful learning consists in the learner “connecting” his school activity with real life.
● The purpose of education is the acquisition of practical and personal knowledge, not abstract or universal truths.
To review, there are common themes to these four learning domains. They are given below:
● are active, purposeful learners.
● set personal goals and strategies to achieve these goals.
● make their learning experience meaningful and relevant to their lives.
● seek to build an understanding of their personal worlds so they can work/live productively.
● build on what they already know in order to interpret and respond to new experiences.